Metrics details. We examine evidence for natural selection resulting in Apis mellifera becoming tolerant or resistant to Varroa mites in different bee populations. We discuss traits implicated in Varroa resistance and how they can be measured. We show that some of the measurements used are ambiguous, as they measure a combination of traits. In addition to behavioural traits, such as removal of infested pupae, grooming to remove mites from bees or larval odours, small colony size, frequent swarming, and smaller brood cell size may also help to reduce reproductive rates of Varroa. Finally, bees may be tolerant of high Varroa infections when they are resistant or tolerant to viruses implicated in colony collapse.
Honey bee and native solitary bee foraging behavior in a crop with dimorphic parental lines
Honey bee tracheal mites were first reported from dying bee colonies on the Isle of Wight UK in Woodward and Quinn, Widespread bee mortality was attributed to the mites in early twentieth-century Europe. They were first discovered in the USA in , and spread rapidly, as a result of swarming, robbing of bee colonies by others, and movement of bees by humans Woodward and Quinn, The introduction of A.
Insect pollination is issential for hybrid seed production systems, among which, introduced and native bees are the primary pollinating agents transferring pollen from male fertile MF to male sterile MS lines. On a highly dimorphic sunflower Helianthus annuus crop, we assessed the foraging behavior of solitary Melissodes bees and honey bees Apis mellifera. We found that Melissodes spp. In contrast, honey bees dominated on MS lines, mostly gathered nectar and exhibited high floral constancy, even after interacting with a second visitor.
Honey bees are not native to North America. During the 's, European settlers coming to New England brought European honey bee colonies with them; hence the name European honey bees. Today honey bees are commonly seen visiting flowers to gather nectar needed to produce honey, the sweet food product associated with this insect. Honey bees also play an important role in pollinating plants important to wildlife.